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Banat region is located in the south-west of Romania and stretches on the territory of the counties Caras-Severin, Timis and Arad (south of Mures). The term "banat" denotes a border province governed by a ban (in HungarianBánság ). Here live in harmony Romanians, Serbs, Hungarians and Swabians their culinary dowry being accompanied on all the significant occasions in life by locally produced wine.
Being the border area, in the banat archive have not been kept many documents related to the cultivation of vines, but there are relics that show that the wave of German settlers from the seventeenth century practiced this occupation, at Recas there are inscriptions from 1747 that mention this. The old grape varieties for wine: Majarca alba, Majarca and Creata de Banat are no longer cultivated, but they have not been forgotten, nowadays trying to bring them back to the attention of consumers, by demonstratively setting up small plantations (under 0.1 ha) in the Buzias area.
Relief: the south-western hills of the Western Subcarpathians, to the East, the Semenicului Mountains and the Poiana Rusca Mountains, to the North, the Lipovei and Mures Hills, to the South: the Danube and to the West the Timis Plain; Smooth, sunny slopes;
Exhibition: S-E, S, S-V; Altitude: 100-350 m; Soil1: marl, clay, sand, gravel, pebble, dusty loessoid;
Multiannual average temperature: 10.5-11.4 degrees C;
Rainfall: 550-895 mm multiannual average;
Over 30 tropical days annually; moderate winters (21-30 days annually). Over 2100 hours of sunshine annually. Rare extreme climatic phenomena, but when they occur, there are late frosts, hail, storm with massive water falls in a very short time, producing flooding in the lowlands. Persistent fog in the morning, in the autumn months. Italian investors have seen the potential of the region and are now an integral part of banat's wine industry. Plantations tend to produce a lot, grapes accumulate sugars that can give a naturally acquired alcoholic strength of over 13% vol. alc, at a total acidity of over 5.5 g / l expressed in tartaric acid.
1.All, M.; Vlad, V.; Dumitru, M.; Calcium, Irina – Soil – basic element of the concept of "Terroir" (2017), Terra Nostra Publishing House, Iasi
Crisana and Maramures region is located in the north-west of Romania and stretches on the territory of satu mare, salaj, bihor and arad counties (north of Mures). Crisana – historical province of Romania, was an integral part of the Partium county, along with Maramures and Satmar. Partium County meant "parts" of Hungary, joined after 1526 to the historical core of the Transylvanian Plateau, constituting together the Principality of Transylvania. In this context, the wines produced in this area have come to be the favorites of the Imperial Austro-Hungarian tables.
The existence of viticulture in Crisana has Hungarian, German and Austrian influences and is documented since 1038 (Mocrea Hill, Arad). Rakoczy Cellar – dates back to Mocrea from 1636 being built by princes Rakoczy, dug in granite rock under the hill of Mocrea with the help of explosion with gunpowder (at that time it was not known dynamite), the cellar having a depth of 60 meters under the hill and a storage capacity of 7000-9000 hectoliters of wine (the vessels were mounted inside due to the size, not standing on the door). A relatively complete inventory of the winemaking centers (still existing today) was made in 1333. In 1562, the tithe (dijma) was 141 thousand liters, and the worked areas exceeded 700 ha. Minis (Arad) first appears on a wine map in 1212. At Simleul Silvaniei (Salaj) were produced wines for industrialization and the famous sparkling SILVANIA, which, before 1989, was almost entirely destined for export. The basic grape varieties for the production of the sparkling wine were Mustoasa de Maderat (brought from the arad vineyards), Feteasca regala and Iordana.
Relief: the area stretches between mures, somes, tisa rivers and the western peaks of the Apuseni Mountains; Smooth slopes, close to the plain;
Exhibition: S-E, S, S-V and predominantly Western;
Altitude: 125-234 m;
Multiannual average temperature: 9.6-11.2 degrees C;
Rainfall: 600-700 mm multiannual average;
Moderate summers by 10-30 tropical days annually; moderate winters (21-30 days annually).
Over 1300-2000 hours of annual sunshine. Extreme climatic events can be late spring frosts or very rarely hail.
The area brings solid arguments for the wine tourism: the cellars in the Beltiug-Ratesti area (Satu Mare), dug in the hills (as in Tokaj – Hungary), on several levels, so that the view seems to be made up of hidden houses; the pits where sparkling wines from the Silvaniei Vineyard (Salaj) mature or the Sequoia gigantea tree, the old colne and the huge cellars from the Minis – Maderat Vineyard (Arad).
The region of Dobrogea, the sands and the Danube Terraces is located in the south-east of Romania and stretches between the Danube and the Black Sea, being bordered by the Macin Mountains. With plateau areas and alluvial hills, Dobrogea is a treasure trove of microclimates, hence the multitude of designations of origin that define the particularities of each geographical indication. The Danube-Black Sea Canal brings to the vineyards on the microterase the peculiarity of a riparian sub-climate.
Archaeological discoveries in the histria fortress (today Istria) have revealed, under the floor of a funerary monument dated to the beginning of our era, amphorae in which the wine was kept for offerings. On February 13, 2007, the Histria Fortress was officially registered on the European Heritage List. There are documents that show that, in the years 1760-1770, the Polish merchants came and bought Dobrogean wine and transported it on the Danube with the help of the ships that were loaded to Isaccea. In an old statistic, in 1903, the north-Dobrogean land alone owned an area of 5,800 hectares of vines (Sarica-Niculitel Vineyard) and made a production of about 305,000 hectoliters of wine annually.
Relief: The North-Dobrudja vineyards are located in large amphitheaters, with openings to the Danube Valley. The viticulture in this area is organized around the Niculitelului hills and the Macin Mountains – remnants of the old Hercynian mountain range – the oldest mountain range in Europe; in the center and south of the region, the hills can have all the possibilities of exhibition, because the slopes are smooth and predominate sunny plateaus;
Altitude: 100-200 m;
Multiannual average temperature: 10.7-11.1 degrees C;
Precipitation: 400-454 mm multiannual average;
Over 30 tropical days annually in Dobrogea and over 50 tropical days per year, in the danube sands and terraces; Moderate winters (21-30 days annually). 2200 – 2311 hours of annual sunshine. About 80-100 days with ground frost.
Extreme climatic events are late frosts, hail and thunderstorms. The fog is persistent in the morning, in the autumn months, in the areas near the Danube and the Danube-Black Sea Canal. From the varieties Chardonnay, Muscat Ottonel, Pinot gris, Pinot noir, Romanian Frankincense and Pink Traminer, in the favorable years are obtained sweet, precious wines, from grapes harvested at the ennoblement of berries, botritized.
Moldova is the largest wine-growing region in Romania and one of the largest in Europe. The nine vineyards and the eight independent wine-growing centers occupy the predominantly hilly-hilly space, between the Subcarpathians of Moldavia, the Carpathians of curvature, the Prut valley and the lower Siret valley. The vineyards of Moldova give a wide range of wine products, from licked and sparkling wine, to wineries that are suitable for aging.
The great Romanian historiographer and scholar, Dimitrie Cantemir, referring to viticulture and wine, recorded in "Descriptio Moldaviae": "on all the other riches of the earth they surpass the chosen vineyards, strung on a long strip between Cotnari and the Danube." Or "These vineyards are not only useful to the locals of the country for their needs, but the low price attracts here Russian merchants, leashes and even Hungarians, who lead to them in the country year after year, more wine." The Cotnari assortment is notorious, made up of Grasa de Cotnari, Feteasca alba, Tamaioasa romaneasca and Francuse, which, in the favorable years, is produced from botritized grapes and rivals with any sweet wine of high class in the world. At international exhibitions and competitions in Vienna (1873), Budapest (1884), Paris (1889), Cotnari wines have acquired numerous diplomas, medals and other distinctions. Marco Bandinus wrote in 1646: "The husul, the ancient settlement of the Moldavian vineyards, produces a tasty, aromatic and very much sought after wine."
Relief: hills of the Eastern Subcarpathians, depressions, plateaus, along the floodplains of the Prut and Siret rivers; Smooth, sunny slopes;
Exhibition: N-V, S, S-E;
Altitude: 100-500 m;
Multiannual average temperature: 9.0-9.5 degrees C;
Rainfall: 380-550 mm multiannual average; Over 30 tropical days annually; cold and cool winters (31-50 days annually). 2000-2100 hours of sunshine annually.
Extreme climatic phenomena are due to the crivat (which brings temperatures below -20 degrees C), which affects the unburied vineyards, sometimes late frosts that stretch over several consecutive days, hail, torrential rains that produce floods by getting out of the queen of watercourses. In the early and late spring months of autumn, the morning is left smooth, unmerited, the microclimates being characterized rather as dry. Autumns are long, warm and sunny, features that often favor the appearance of noble rot on grapes.
Viticultural Muntenia brings together the hilly area of the Getic Subcarpathians and the Curvature Subcarpathians, with the smoother slopes exposed to the sun all day and along the rivers that spring from the mountains or cross the Carpathians: Olt, Arges, Dambovita, Prahova and Buzau.
The Dealu Mare area is and will continue to be, for the foreseeable future, the epicenter of quality wines in Romania, with the largest concentration of small, medium and large producers, oriented towards the production of Premium wines.
A critical moment in the development of the Dealu Mare vineyard was the invasion of phylloxerei which was first reported in Chitorani in 1884, followed by the restoration of the vineyards with old Romanian varieties grafted on rootstocks resistant to the attack of the insect. In the cellars "Rhein" Azuga is produced the oldest sparkling wine in the country. These cellars represent a rarity for the Romanian market, being built on the surface and with thick walls of over 1.20 m. The cellars were founded in 1892, being the work of Wilhelm Rhein, the descendant of a German family settled for over 500 years in Brasov, who bought a plot of land in Azuga. This land had belonged, until then, to the estate of King Carol I.
Relief: the hilly area of the Getic Subcarpathians to the right of the Olt River and the Subcarpathians of curvature including the Buzau Valley; With smooth slopes, sunny at the base of the hills and slopes with somewhat higher slopes in the northern area of the submontane hills;
Exhibition: S-V, S, S-E;
Altitude: 130-600 m;
Multiannual average temperature: 10.8-11.4 degrees C;
Precipitation: 500-580 mm multiannual average; Cool summers with less than 10 tropical days annually; Mild or moderate winters (21-30 days annually). 2100-2146 hours of sunshine annually. Extreme climatic events can be late frosts and hail.
Oltenia, known for its island vineyards, located near urban commercial areas, still has, besides a multitude of national and international varieties, both hybrid varieties of grapes (such as the famous Siebel / Zaibar) and ancestral Romanian varieties (Rosioara verde, Rosioara commune, Rosioara neagra, Mustoasa de Maderat, Babeasca neagra, Negru moale, Negru vartos, Gordan), which survived phylloxera, precisely because of their adaptability to sandy soils, where the insect can not migrate from one root to another, making it impossible for them to dig galleries through the sand.
By a document from January 8, 1407, Mircea cel Batran (1386-1418) gives and involves the Cozia Monastery with an annual bushel of wheat and wine. In 1532, Vlad The Drowner gives to Hamza, great ban (Banu Maracine) of Jiu and Craiova, Craiova with all its villages and vineyards In 1557, in an official document, Patrascu the Good (father of Michael the Brave), gave as dowry "the lands of Segarcei, his daughter, Maria". The wine cellar of the Royal Family of Romania produced sparkling wines of the highest quality in Segarcea, even before the First World War (according to the publication "Buletinul Agricultura" vol. IV, 1923).
Relief: Oltenia occupies, in the south of Romania, the hilly area bordered by the Danube, the Southern Carpathians and the Olt River; From smooth slopes, sunny at the base of the hills, to slopes with slightly higher slopes in the area of the submontane hills of the Mehedinti PDO. The front slopes of the hills are around 5°;
Exhibition: S, S-E;
Altitude: 90-400 m;
Multiannual average temperature: 10.6-11.6 degrees C;
Precipitation: 500-560 mm multiannual average;
Hot summers, with more than 50 tropical days annually; Moderate winters (21-30 days annually). 2100-2200 hours of sunshine annually.
Extreme climatic events can be late frosts and hail. The meteoric waters do not drain outside except to a very small extent in the vicinity of the slopes, and the rest infiltrate the soil, accumulates on the surface or on the soil profile, in crevices where they can puddle for a long time. There is a real danger of flooding, during storms with torrential rains. "Deep Oltenia" has brought back, through the labels of today's wines, legendary names, saints and ancient customs, keeping alive the authentic folklore treasure.
The wine-growing region of the Transylvanian Plateau known until ten years ago as a classic area for the production of remarkable white wines, is located in the wine-growing area B. The climate change of the last decades has also favored the elaboration of some very expressive and recognizable red wines, which have already asserted themselves at various national and international competitions.
The area where we find the famous fortified churches, countless castles that once belonged to the count groves worn in the past by great latifundiari in Hungary, ruins of medieval fortresses and even fortresses inhabited today, such as Sighisoara and Cetatea de Balta. Transylvania brings along with its history a pleiade of remarkable wines. The great gold awards, obtained by the aromatic Traminer wines, in Montpellier in 1958 and Ljubliana in 1974, confirmed the oenological value of the area. Tarnave vineyard enjoys an ancient reputation, it can be found in a map from "Chorographia Transylvaniae" of John Honterus in 1532. Suitable for obtaining quiet wines, at the same time with special sparkling wines and precious wineries, the wine region of the Transylvanian Plateau offers to the demanding consumer a wide range of wine products, at permanently updated manufacturing standards.
Relief: The Transylvanian Plateau, with its three sections, the Somesan Plateau, the Transylvanian Plain and the Tarnavelor Plateau, with a wide variety of altitude in the hilly area; Smooth slopes, sunny at the base of the hills, with more pronounced inclinations in the upper and middle third;
Exhibition: S-V, S, S-E;
Altitude: 250-800 m;
Multiannual average temperature: 8.4-9.7 degrees C;
Precipitation: 500-700 mm multiannual average; Cool summers, with less than 10 tropical days annually; cold and cool winters (31-50 days annually). 1900-2000 hours of annual sunshine.
Extreme climatic events can be late frosts that stretch over several consecutive days, hail. In late summer and early autumn, in the morning there is a fine, persistent groove, which also hydrates the grapes' berries, accelerating the physiological processes of sugar accumulation in the atmosphere of moderate temperatures. During the ripening period of the grapes, the daytime temperatures vary around the average of 22ºC, and those during the night around the average of 12ºC. Autumns are long and sunny, so there are years when noble rot makes its appearance on grapes and wines can be obtained that bear the traditional cib mention.
1. All of them, M.; Dumitru, Sorina; Vlad, V.; Eftene, Alina – The Pedological Atlas of Romania's Vineyards (2017), Terra Nostra Publishing House, Iasi
3. REGULATION (EU) NO .../... Regulation (EC) No 1308/2013 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 17 December 2013 establishing a common organisation of the markets in agricultural products and repealing Regulations (EEC) No 1308/2013. No 922/72, (EEC) No 922/72, No 234/79, (EC) No 234/79. 1037/2001 and (EC) no. Council Regulation (EC) No 1234/2007